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Table 1 Possible risk factors contributing to port-site metastasis

From: Port-site metastasis after diagnostic laparoscopy for presumably benign ruptured ovarian cyst: disseminated intraperitoneal metastasis of a Krukenberg tumor

Hematogenous spread and direct wound implantation
Instrument contamination
“Chimney effect”
Aerosolization of tumor cells
Surgical technique and experience
Excessive tumor manipulation
Pressure and CO2 of the pneumoperitoneum
Impairment of local immune response