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Table 1 Indications for fetoscopic surgery

From: The use of endoscopy in fetal medicine

Fetal surgery Rationale for in utero therapy
CDH Reversal of pulmonary hypoplasia and prevention of pulmonary hypertension
MMC Covering of exposed spinal cord, prevention of hydrocephaly and hindbrain herniation
SCT Reversal of cardiac failure and prevention of polyhydramnios
LUTO Prevention of renal failure and pulmonary hypoplasia
Surgery on the placenta, cord, or membranes Rationale for in utero therapy
Complicated MC pregnancies  
TTTS Functional bichorionization or arrest of feto-fetal transfusion and its consequences
TRAP and other discordant anomalies In some conditions (TTTS/TRAP), reversal of cardiac failure and polyhydramnios
TAPS In some conditions, selective feticide is a goal in itself
ABS Prevention of deformities and functional loss
Chorioangioma Prevention of cardiac failure, hydrops fetoplacentalis, and polyhydramnios
  1. Adapted from Deprest [16]
  2. CDH congenital diaphragmatic hernia, MMC myelomeningocoele, SCT sacrococcygeal teratoma, LUTO lower urinary tract obstruction, MC monochorionic, ABS amniotic band syndrome, sIUGR selective intrauterine growth restriction, TTTS twin–twin-transfusion syndrome, TAPS twin-anemia-polycythemia sequence