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Table 2 Reported risks for PROM following fetoscopic procedures in selected case series

From: The use of endoscopy in fetal medicine

Procedure (for) Number of cases Risk PROM (time point at assessment) Diameter instrument Reference
MMC 3 67% 3.8 mm Kohl [18]
4 33% 3 ports, largest 5.0 mm Bruner [19]
LUTO 10 17% 1.3 mm Welsh [20]
13 13% ≤2.6 mm Quintero [21]
ABS 2 100% 3.3 mm Soldado [22]
2 100% 4.0 mm Keswani [23]
  2 50% 2.7 mm Quintero [24]
Placental laser 4 (TTTS) 75% 5.0 mm Kohl (secondary laser) [25]
6 (TTTS) 33% 3.3 mm Van Schoubroeck (triplets only) [26]
175 (TTTS) 28% (<34 weeks) 3.3 mm Yamamoto and Ville [27]
7% (<1 week)
20 (TTTS) 5% (<28 weeks) 3.3 mm Crombleholme [28]
24 (TTTS) 4% 4.0 mm Chang [29]
6 (TRAP) 0% (<3 weeks) 2.0 mm Quintero [30]
CO 80 38% 2.3 or 3.3 mm Lewi (bipolar/laser) [31]
  4 25% 2.7 mm Ville (laser) [32]
  39 20% (<3 weeks) 3.5 mm Quintero (ligation ± transection/laser) [30]
  25 16% (<3 weeks) 3.5 mm (1 or 2 ports) Nakata (ligation/laser) [33]
  12 8% 3.0 mm Young (bipolar) [34]
FETO 11 100% 5.0 mm (1 or 3 ports) Harrison [35]
210 47% 3.0 mm Jani [36]
17% (<3 weeks)
  1. Rupture rates (%) are those reported ≥37 weeks or at the time point specified (adapted from Deprest [37])
  2. CO cord occlusion, FETO fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion