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Table 1 Categorization of risk factors

From: Patient safety risk factors in minimally invasive surgery: a validation study

Risk domains Risk factors
Surgeon Experience of the surgeon
Technical skills of the surgeon
Leadership of the surgeon
Surgical team Qualified staffing
Experience of the scrub nurse
Scrub nurse’s knowledge of the procedure
Experience of the circulating nurse
Technology All instruments are present
All instruments work properly
It is known how to handle all instruments
All equipment is present
All equipment works properly
The OR team knows how to handle all equipment
The surgeons knows how to handle all equipment
Social interaction Communication between OR team members
Failure of professional communication
Communication of important issues at shift changes
Collaboration between OR team members
Environment Disruptions of the surgical process
Distractions (e.g., questions not relating to the patient)
Number of people in the OR
Patient Patient’s BMI
Patient’s ASA score
Previous surgeries
Fallibility Time of day surgery takes place (e.g., daytime, nighttime)
Number of procedure (e.g., first or last of that day)
Safety measures Universal safety protocols
Briefing according to WHO checklist
Compliance of safety measures (protocol)
Result Intraoperative complications
Amount of blood loss
Length of surgery
  1. BMI body mass index, OR operating room, ASA score American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Scores