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Table 3 Assessment of the utility of haptic feedback in clinical scenarios

From: Ergonomics of laparoscopic graspers and the importance of haptic feedback: the surgeons’ perspective

Scenario Mean ± SDa
Feeling differences in tissue consistencies 3.5 ± 1.5
Locating a tumor or enlarged lymph node 3.2 ± 1.7
Feeling arterial pulse 2.7 ± 1.6
Feeling how much pressure is being applied 3.6 ± 1.4
Limiting the force on the surgeons’ hand 3.4 ± 1.5
Lowering the time to complete surgery 2.4 ± 1.7
Reducing complications 3.2 ± 1.6
Reduction of conversions to open surgery 2.1 ± 1.6
Performing laparoscopy instead of open surgery 2.4 ± 1.7
  1. aAssessment based on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from 0 to 5 and presented as mean ± SD