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Table 4 Survey questions

From: Ergonomics of laparoscopic graspers and the importance of haptic feedback: the surgeons’ perspective

 What is your age? N
 What is your gender? S
 In which country do you work? S
 In what department do you work? S
 What is your dominant hand? S
 What is your surgical glove size? N
 For how many years are you in practice? N
 For how many years do you perform laparoscopic surgery? N
 How many laparoscopic procedures do you perform per month? N
Physical symptoms
 Have you ever experienced physical complaints or discomfort that you would attribute to the use of laparoscopic instruments? S
 If applicable, in which parts of the upper extremities have you experienced these physical complaints or discomforts? M
 If applicable, where do you experience discomfort from pressure caused by instruments? (includes the hand map as illustrated in Fig. 2) M
Handgrip assessment
 In what percentage of laparoscopic procedures do you use these handle types? N
 Which handle type is your favorite for grasping? S
 How do you rate the functionality of each handle type for grasping tasks? L
 How do you rate the comfort of each handle type for grasping tasks? L
 How do you rate the freedom of movement of each handle type for grasping tasks? L
 Which handle type would be your favorite for grasping with an instrument that provides enhanced haptic feedback? S
User features
 When holding a laparoscopic grasper with rotating function for the instrument tip, what percentage of time do you keep your index finger pointed forward? N
 Do you sometimes “palm” your grip when operating with a scissors handle? S
 If so, in what situations do you do this? D
Clinical relevance
 If you had a laparoscopic tool with haptic feedback, for what specific scenarios would you consider it useful? L
 - Feeling differences in tissue consistencies  
 - Locating a tumor or enlarged lymph node  
 - Feeling arterial pulse  
 - Feeling how much pressure is being applied  
 - Limiting the force on the surgeons’ hand  
 - Lowering the time to complete surgery  
 - Reducing complications  
 - Reduction of conversions to open surgery  
 - Performing laparoscopy instead of open surgery  
  1. Body parts involved the following: wrists, fingers, thumbs, elbows, and shoulders. Handgrip assessments concerned the evaluation of the following designs: back-hinged scissors handle, front-hinged scissors handle, in-line handle, long-lever pistol grip, and short-lever pistol grip
  2. D descriptive, L Likert scale, M multiple answers, N numeric response, S single answer