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Table 9 Primary surgical treatment of interstitial pregnancy

From: Elective uterine artery embolization prior to laparoscopic resection of interstitial pregnancy: two cases and literature review

Author N Initial β-hCG Surgical treatment Operating time Rupture Hospital stay Negative β-hCG Complications Success
Steadman [97] 1 N/A Resection of GT N/A Yes 7 N/A Transfusion 1/1
Bickerstaff [98] 1 N/A CR N/A N/A N/A N/A 1/1
Farabow et al. [99] 1 N/A Laparotomic CR N/A Yes N/A N/A Transfusion 1/1
Iuchtman and Grunstein [100] 2 N/A Laparotomic resection of GT N/A Yes 8 N/A N/A 2/2
Hill et al. [101] 1 N/A Laparoscopic resection of GT° N/A No 2 4–5 1/1
Reich et al. [102] 1 16,300 Laparoscopic CR N/A Yes 2 3 Transfusion 1/1
de Boer et al. [103] 1 N/A Laparotomic CS N/A No N/A N/A 1/1
Pelosi [104] 1 N/A Laparoscopic CR 45 N/A 1 N/A 1/1
Laury [105] 1 2450 Laparoscopic CS N/A No 0 N/A 1/1
Sherer et al. [106] 1* N/A Laparoscopic CR N/A Yes 3 * Transfusion 1/1
Tulandi et al. [107] 4 4700–14,500 Laparoscopic CR° N/A No N/A N/A 5/5
  1 8000 Laparoscopic SS° N/A No N/A N/A 1/1
Woodland et al. [108] 1 11,061 Laparoscopic CR° N/A No 1 N/A 1/1
Katz and Lurie [109] 1 6300 Laparoscopic CS° N/A No N/A N/A 1/1
Grobman and Milad [110] 1 32,827 Laparoscopic CS° N/A No N/A 6 1/1
Kasum et al. [111] 1* 5450 Laparoscopic resection of GT N/A Yes N/A * 1/1
Crvenkoviæ et al. [112] 1 8800 Laparoscopic CR° 60 No 4 2 1/1
Rahimi [113] 1 3672 Laparoscopic CS° N/A No 1 2 1/1
Moon et al. [38] 3 28.5–305,100 Laparoscopic CS° 52 No N/A N/A 3/3
  18   Laparoscopic CS°° U:28; R:82 3/18 N/A N/A 17/18
  3   Laparoscopic CS°°° 35 No N/A N/A 3/3
Vicino et al. [114] 1 21,800 Laparoscopic CR N/A No N/A 2 1/1
Ayoubi et al. [115] 1* N/A Laparotomic resection of GT N/A Yes N/A * 1/1
Dumesic et al. [116] 1* N/A Laparotomic CR N/A Yes N/A N/A Transfusion Miscarriage 1/1
Kun and Tung [117] 1 N/A Laparotomic resection of GT N/A Yes 6 N/A 1/1
Osuga et al. [118] 3 14,352–19,457 Laparoscopic CR N/A N/A N/A N/A 3/3
Sagiv et al. [57] 1 N/A Laparoscopic CS N/A Yes 1 N/A Transfusion 1/1
DeWitt and Abbott [119] 1 N/A CR N/A Yes 3 N/A Transfusion 1/1
Sills et al. [120] 1* N/A Laparoscopic CS < 60 No 3 *   1/1
Chang et al. [121] 1* 63,300 Laparotomic resection of GT N/A N/A N/A * 1/1
Habek et al. [122] 2 N/A Laparotomic hysterectomy N/A Yes 8 N/A Transfusion 1/2 2/2
Izquierdo et al. [123] 1 2500 CR N/A N/A 3 N/A 1/1
Katz et al. [124] 2 3467–9800 TE, LG and HG N/A No N/A N/A 2/2
Yoo et al. [125] 4 39,245 Laparoscopic CS° 54 No 2 4 4/4
Gezer and Mutlu [126] 1 N/A Laparoscopic CS N/A No 1 N/A 1/1
Grimbizis et al. [127] 1 821 Laparoscopic CR N/A Yes 1 3 1/1
Lee et al. [128] 1 45,000 Laparotomic CS N/A No 7 N/A 1/1
Savvidou et al. [129] 1 27,724 Laparoscopic resection of GT N/A Yes 4 3 Transfusion Conversion 1/1
Thakur et al. [130] 2 3356–17,735 TE, LG and UG N/A No 2 N/A 2/2
  2   TE, LG and UG N/A No N/A N/A 2/2
Tulandi et al. [39] 13 11,471 Laparotomic CR N/A 9/13 N/A N/A Transfusion 7/13 13/13
  8 2087 Laparoscopic CR N/A 5/11 N/A N/A Transfusion 2/11 7/8
  3   Laparoscopic CS N/A 5/11 N/A N/A Transfusion 2/11 3/3
Zhang et al. [131] 3 8593–16,820 TE, LG < 18 No 3 (max) 4 3/3
Huang et al. [132] 4 39,933–74,551 Laparoscopic CS N/A No N/A 4 4/4
Kumakiri et al. [133] 1 9460 Laparoscopic CR° 84 No 2 4 1/1
Ross et al. [134] 2 23,480–45,780 TE, UG1 N/A No 2 4–8 2/2
Takeda et al. [94] 2 4250–15,500 Laparoscopic CR 44–98 Yes 6–11 N/A Transfusion 2/2 2/2
  1 16,100 Laparoscopic CS 75 Yes 30 N/A Transfusion 0/1
Ko et al. [135] 1 1356 Laparoscopic resection of GT N/A No 1 1 1/1
Lee et al. [136] 1 N/A Laparotomic CS N/A No 3 N/A 1/1
Oliver et al. [137] 5 14,874 TE, LG and UG N/A No N/A N/A 5/5
Lialios et al. [138] 1* N/A Laparoscopic CR N/A Yes 2 * 1/1
Qin et al. [139] 1* N/A Laparoscopic CR°° N/A No N/A * 1/1
Sherer et al. [140] 1 N/A Laparotomic resection of GT N/A Yes 3 N/A 1/1
Casadio et al. [141] 1 9383 Laparoscopic CR 40 No 2 5 1/1
Cheng et al. [142] 1 59,959 Laparoscopic CS N/A No 6 5 1/1
Choi et al. [143] 8 3400–74,060 Laparoscopic CS° 35–80 No N/A 2–5 8/8
Duong et al. [144] 1 N/A Laparotomic resection of GT N/A Yes 7 N/A Transfusion 1/1
MacRae et al. [40] 3 3150–38,000 Laparoscopic CS N/A 1/3 2 N/A 3/3
  8 0–21,352 Laparoscopic CR N/A 3/8 2 N/A Conversion 1/8 7/8
Ng et al. [41] 53 N/A Laparoscopic CS if IP 1–2 cm°; Laparoscopic CR if IP 3 cm or more° 67 (mean) 8/53 2 3 Conversion 1/53 Transfusion 8/53 44/53
Pluchino et al. [145] 1 N/A Laparoscopic CS N/A Yes 2 N/A 1/1
Moon et al. [14] 20 177–39,508 Laparoscopic CS° N/A 2/20 N/A N/A 19/20
Pan et al. [146] 1 79,194 Bilateral CR (bilateral IP) N/A No 10 N/A 1/1
Pistofidis et al. [147] 1 18,900 Laparoscopic resection of GT N/A Yes 2 N/A 1/1
Tinelli et al. [148] 3 7600–12,500 Laparoscopic CS 45 (mean) 1/3 1 2 3/3
Vignali et al. [149] 3 431–3252 Laparoscopic CR 36–60 No 1 N/A 3/3
Walid et al. [150] 1 N/A Laparoscopic resection of GT° N/A N/A N/A N/A 1/1
Yan [151] 1 3600 Laparoscopic resection of GT° 60 No N/A N/A 1/1
Aust et al. [152] 1* N/A Laparoscopic CR N/A No 0 * Miscarriage 1/1
Cerviño et al. [153] 1 20,940 TE, UG2 N/A No N/A 5 1/1
Chachan et al. [154] 1* N/A Laparoscopic CS N/A No 1 * 1/1
Hwang et al. [42] 54 12,741 Laparotomic CR 71 19/54 6 N/A Transfusion 25/54 54/54
  34 12,905 Laparoscopic CR 81 8/34 5 N/A Transfusion 13/34 Bowel injury 1/34 34/34
Lazard et al. [155] 2 4900–14,720 Laparoscopic CR 25–35 No 2–3 2–3 2/2
Lodhi et al. [156] 1 6041 Laparoscopic CR N/A No 2 N/A 1/1
  1 N/A Laparoscopic CR N/A Yes 2 N/A Transfusion 1/1
Yamamoto et al. [157] 1 N/A Laparoscopic CR° N/A No 1 N/A 1/1
Ahsan Akhtar et al. [158] 1 16,740 Laparoscopic CR 25 No 1 3 1/1
Cai et al. [43] 15 N/A Laparoscopic CS° 30–80 N/A 2–5 2–5 15/15
  7 3000–32,000 TE, LG, and HG 45–90 No N/A 2–5 Perforation 2/7 5/7
Cucinella et al. [159] 5 1286–20,680 Laparoscopic CR°°°° 31–46 No N/A 3–4 5/5
Garavaglia et al. [160] 1 2173 Laparoscopic CS N/A N/A N/A N/A 1/1
Muglu et al. [161] 1 N/A Laparoscopic resection of GT N/A N/A N/A N/A 1/1
Rheinboldt et al. [162] 1 7787 Laparoscopic CR N/A N/A N/A N/A 1/1
Zuo et al. [44] 16 14,696 Laparoscopic CR 25–120 No 3–4 N/A Rupture 1/16 16/16
Ahn et al. [45] 6 17,797–69,303 TE, UG N/A No 2–8 N/A 5/6
  9 20,319–50,271 Laparoscopic CR N/A N/A 4–7 N/A Transfusion 1/9 9/9
MacKenna et al. [163] 1 5820 Laparoscopic CR° N/A No 1 2 1/1
Mooij and Van Dillen [164] 1 N/A Laparotomic resection of GT N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1/1
Sagiv et al. [73] 3 3282–13,260 Laparoscopic CR N/A N/A N/A N/A 3/3
  2 21,930–88,270 Laparoscopic CS N/A N/A N/A N/A 2/2
Surbone et al. [74] 2 2974–15,022 Laparoscopic CR N/A N/A N/A N/A Conversion 1/2 2/2
Warda et al. [165] 1 N/A Laparoscopic CS° N/A No N/A N/A 1/1
Wright et al. [166] 3 1455–27,052 TE, UG1 N/A No N/A 6–12 3/3
Zhang and Yuan [167] 2 2808–14,030 Laparoscopic CR° 45–95 No 6–7 < 1 2/2
Chandran [168] 1 N/A Laparotomic CR N/A No 5 N/A 1/1
Douysset et al. [46] 13 369–45,780 Laparoscopic CR N/A 9/18 5 N/A Transfusion 4/18 11/13
  5   Laparoscopic CS N/A 9/18 5 N/A Transfusion 4/18 4/5
Garretto et al. [169] 1 26,476 Laparoscopic CR N/A No 1 N/A 1/1
Manea et al. [11] 2 2238–8915 Laparoscopic resection of GT N/A Yes N/A N/A 2/2
  1 6892 Laparoscopic CR~ N/A Yes N/A N/A 1/1
Nezhat et al. [170] 1 N/A TE°, UG + LG N/A No 1 5 1/1
Wang et al. [171] 8 636–13,310 Laparoscopic CS° 40–100 No 2 N/A 8/8
  1 N/A Laparoscopic CS° N/A No 2 N/A 1/1
Warda et al. [172] 4 N/A Laparoscopic CS° N/A No N/A N/A 4/4
Watanabe et al. [47] 12 998–55,820 Laparoscopic CS, ° 61–160 2/12 N/A N/A 12/12
  1 69 Laparoscopic CS° N/A Yes N/A N/A 1/1
Yu et al. [91] 4* N/A Laparotomic resection of GT N/A N/A N/A * Miscarriage 1/4 4/4
Ansari et al. [173] 1 65,000 Laparoscopic CS° 78 No 0 12 1/1
Afifi et al. [174] 2 3890–17,445 Laparoscopic CS°, °°°°° 55–65 1/2 1 1–2 2/2
Faioli et al. [10] 3 10,119–18,765 Laparoscopic CR 28 No N/A 3 3/3
Grindler et al. [175] 1 39,745 TE, UG N/A No 0 N/A 1/1
Jeon et al. [176] 9* N/A Laparotomy N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 9/9
Kim et al. [177] 13* N/A Laparoscopic CR 40–145 2/13 2–7 N/A Rupture 1/11 Transfusion 2/13 Miscarriage 1/13 13/13
Mallick et al. [178] 2 2304–14,480 Laparoscopic CS N/A 1/2 0 N/A 2/2
  2 N/A Laparoscopic CS N/A No 1 N/A 2/2
Nikodijevic et al. [48] 13 16,687 Laparoscopic CR N/A N/A N/A 4–8 Conversion 5/13 Transfusion 4/13 13/13
Nirgianakis et al. [49] 10 27,634 Laparoscopic CR~ 115 N/A 3 N/A Transfusion 3/10 10/10
Said [179] 4 N/A Laparoscopic resection of GT~ 40–60 N/A 2 N/A 4/4
  1* N/A Laparoscopic resection of GT N/A Yes N/A * 1/1
Wang et al. [50] 38 25,150 Laparoscopic CS° 71 11/38 3 N/A 35/38
Xu et al. [180] 1 N/A Resection of GT N/A Yes N/A N/A Transfusion 1/1
Kahramanoglu et al. [81] 1 > 10,000 Laparotomic resection of GT N/A Yes 3 N/A Transfusion 1/1
1 9277 TE, UG N/A No 0 4 1/1
1 N/A TE, LG N/A No 1 1 1/1
Lee et al. [51] 53 575–64,831 Laparoscopic CR3 77 N/A N/A N/A 49/53
  22 1454–62,422 Laparoscopic CS, ° 59 N/A N/A N/A 21/22
  1. N number of cases, β-hCG mIU/ml, CR cornual resection, CS cornuostomy, TE transcervical evacuation, SS salpingostomy, GT gestational tissue, R ruptured, U unruptured, UG under ultrasound guidance, LG under laparoscopic guidance, HG under hysteroscopic guidance, IP interstitial pregnancy, operating time minutes, hospital stay days, negative β-hCG weeks
  2. *Heterotopic pregnancy, hemostatic technique: °vasopressin, °°endoloop, °°°encircling suture, °°°°“Purse-string” suture, °°°°°stitch at the uterine fundus and in the mesosalpinx, ~local injection of diluted adrenaline (1/4)—1: MTX 50 mg/m2 IM; 2: MTX 1 mg/kg IM; 3: +/− postoperative prophylactic MTX