Management of adnexal torsion by laparoscopic approach
© Springer-Verlag 2012
Received: 3 February 2012
Accepted: 8 March 2012
Published: 22 March 2012
The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion. Early minimal invasive surgical management of adnexal torsion with the main emphasis on an organ-preserving procedure can safely be recommended. Although the incidence of adnexal torsions has increased, the morbidity rate has declined due to safer diagnostics and operative strategies. This is a retrospective case–control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3) of 33 cases of adnexal torsion over an 11-year period (December 1999–September 2010) in a gynecologic endoscopy unit of a university hospital. Interventions include early diagnostic laparoscopy and utmost protection of the surrounding tissue. Thirty-three cases of laparoscopically managed adnexal torsions were analyzed. Fifty-two percent had conservative organ-sparing procedures, while 48 % underwent resection of ovary, tube, or both. The mean operating time was 69.2 min. There were no complications or conversions to laparotomy. The most common predisposing factor was an adnexal mass with symptoms of pain. Torsion on the right tube is more common than on the left. Laparoscopic surgery is an effective, safe, and feasible method in the diagnosis and treatment of adnexal torsion.
Torsion of the adnexa is the fifth most common gynecologic surgical emergency . The condition is more common in premenarcheal females (children or premenarcheal adolescents) in whom torsion involving previously normal adnexa may constitute up to 15–50 % of adnexal torsion cases . It is difficult to diagnose because although adnexal torsion may present in the form of acute pelvic pain, the symptoms can sometimes be deceptive. When the lesions are asymptomatic, the diagnosis may be made only during the surgical procedure. Doppler evaluation in cases of ovarian torsion can be a useful tool, but it was found to be normal in 60 % of these cases. The absence of Doppler flow was predictive of surgically confirmed cases of ovarian torsion, demonstrating the low sensitivity but high specificity of Doppler studies in the diagnosis of torsion [3, 4].
In the past, adnexal torsion was treated by salpingo-oophorectomy without untwisting the adnexa to avoid potential thromboembolism from ovarian vein thrombosis . However, a significant association between thromboembolism and untwisting an ischemic pedicle has never been established . Recently, a review of literature concluded that the risk of pulmonary embolism after adnexal torsion was 0.2 % and was not increased when the adnexa was untwisted. Over 400 cases managed with untwisting the adnexa have been reported, with no embolic phenomena [4, 6].
The conservative management of torsion with untwisting (detorsion) of the fallopian tube and ovary has proved to be safe and effective in multiple case series in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This type of management, first proposed by Way in 1946, is highly desirable since torsion occurs most often in women of reproductive age, and ovarian conservation is preferable in this age group.
Progress made in operative laparoscopy now suggests that treatment of adnexal torsion can be carried out laparoscopically which is the procedure of choice. Laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion has been shown to be feasible and preferable to laparotomy. The advantages of laparoscopy include short hospital stay and recovery time, in addition to the fact that conservative procedures, such as detorsion and ovarian cystectomy, can be done laparoscopically .
Patients and methods
Data from 33 patients with adnexal torsion who underwent laparoscopic management were collected retrospectively from the computerized operating logs of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Germany over an 11-year period between December 1999 and September 2010.
All patients underwent a clinical examination, ultrasound scanning, routine blood count, electrolyte analysis, urine analysis, and coagulation profile. In patients diagnosed to have an adnexal cyst, tumor markers, namely, CA125 and CEA, were measured. Other imaging techniques, such as MRI, were done in selected cases according to the sonographic findings. Presence of any predisposing factors such as adhesions, neoplasm, and pregnancy were noted.
Data regarding patient's demographics, intraoperative findings, and the operation performed were obtained from the clinical records. Cases were included in the analysis only if there was evidence of torsion of the ovary, fallopian tube, or entire adnexa at the time of definitive surgical evaluation. The final pathological diagnosis was also documented.
Intraoperative data regarding side and site of torsion
Side of torsion
Right, 20 (61%)
Left, 13 (39%)
Site of torsion
Ovary, 14 (43%)
Tube, 10 (30%)
Adnexa, 9 (27%)
Conditions associated with adnexal torsion
Ovarian cyst (functional and organic)
The size of the adnexal mass was documented in 26 cases (79 %). Measurements were considered accurate only if the removed specimen was intact and measured at pathological examination. The diameter of the cyst ranged from 3 to 15 cm with a median size of 8 cm. There were nine tumors (35 %) which measured less than 5 cm in size and seven tumors (27 %) which measured more than 10 cm. The majority of them, 10 tumors (38 %), measured between 5 and 10 cm.
Operation performed for adnexal torsion
Detorsion and cyst enucleation
Detorsion and cyst aspiration
Detorsion and adnexectomy
Detorsion and salpingectomy
Following detorsion, we waited for about 30 min, if allowed by the operation conditions, for recovery. Meanwhile, the operative field was continuously irrigated with warm saline in order to observe any sign of reperfusion. After torsion, the enlarged and blood-filled tube, ovary, or whole adnexa, with a variable diameter, are usually dark blue to black and partly necrotic. After detorsion, the according organ is left atraumatically to wait for any signs of reperfusion. This is a slight change of color towards a pinkish appearance; however, if reperfusion did not occur, the ovary, tube, or both were resected, which occurred in 16 patients (48 %). Unilateral salpingectomy was performed in 5 patients (15 %) and unilateral adnexectomy in 11 patients (33 %), 6 of them (37 %) were postmenopausal. The mean operating time was 69.2 min (range 40–120 min). No patient had serious complications, such as thromboembolic events, blood transfusion, febrile morbidity, or reoperation. The average duration of stay in the hospital was 2.5 days (range 1–3 days).
Functional ovarian cyst
Para tubal hydatid cyst
No histological specimen
Despite recent progress with the color Doppler techniques , preoperative diagnosis is often difficult, and adnexal torsion can be confused with many other gynecological conditions. The surgical evaluation of these patients should be performed by laparoscopy, thereby avoiding unnecessary laparotomies.
Intrinsic and extrinsic causes of fallopian tube torsion
Changes in the neighboring organs
Excessive length of tube or spiral course
Neoplasm, adhesions, pregnancy
Hydrosalpinx, hematosalpinx, neoplasm, surgery
Movement or trauma to the pelvic organs
Autonomic dysfunction and abnormal peristalsis
In our study, the most common predisposing factor was adnexal cyst in 24 patients (72 %). Ten patients (30 %) had no individual predisposing factors; however, an equal number of patients (30 %) had adhesions which may promote torsion. These results correspond with current literature . Four patients (12 %) were pregnant. The presence of long tube, OHSS, endometriosis, and PID were all associated with less than 10 % of cases.
Adnexal torsion was more common on the right side (61 %) than on the left (39 %) which may be attributed to the protective effect of the sigmoid colon on the left side and subclinical appendicial infection on the right side, as confirmed, e.g., by Nichols . In the present study, we encountered isolated ovarian torsion in 14 (43 %), entire adnexal torsion in 9 (27 %), and isolated fallopian tube torsion in 10 (30 %) patients. However, isolated fallopian tube torsion has been reported as sporadic cases by many authors [9, 16, 17].
Possible mechanisms for tubal torsion
• Mechanical disturbance
• Venous obstruction
• Lymphatic congestion
• Diffuse edema
• Tubal enlargement
• Tubal torsion
Historically, the treatment of choice for adnexal torsion has been laparotomy and unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Although, there has been concern about the significant risk of thromboembolic events by detorsion, various reports, starting from as early as 1946 by S. Way, have suggested the safety of ovarian conservation by detorsion. Laparoscopy has been shown to be a favorable option in patients with torsion. There has been a trend towards increased used of laparoscopy and adnexal-sparing procedures in many centers because of its obvious benefits regarding safety, reliability, and preserving fertility [1, 7, 18, 19].
For the whole of our series, we were able to use laparoscopic surgery to treat 100 % of cases (33 patients) because there was no suspicion of neoplastic pathology during the diagnostic part of the laparoscopy. Seventeen cases of adnexal torsion (52 % of patients) benefited from conservative laparoscopic treatment. These patients underwent detorsion only, with or without cyst aspiration or enucleation. The majority of these were young women desiring fertility. In 48 % of cases, detorsion followed by salpingectomy or adnexectomy was performed. More than half of the patients having an adnexectomy were postmenopausal. In the recent literature, the rate of conservative laparoscopic treatment varies from 35 to 93 % [1, 4, 7, 18, 20].
Laparoscopy in early pregnancy provides a better chance for successful continuation of pregnancy. In our study, there were four pregnant women at the time of conservative laparoscopic surgery. One of the pregnant women who underwent laparoscopic detorsion and cyst aspiration during the 10th week of gestation has an ongoing pregnancy of 30 weeks gestation. Two women of 7 and 14 weeks gestation, with triplets after IVF, miscarried at 20 and 22 weeks, respectively, due to cervical incompetence. The last one had an interstitial ectopic pregnancy. Laparoscopy in pregnancy, especially in later pregnancy, is technically difficult owing to the increased risk of perforation and bleeding. Postoperatively, there is an increased risk of miscarriage or preterm delivery .
This study confirms that laparoscopy is the preferable approach for diagnosis and treatment of adnexal torsion. Conservative treatment should be considered in women within the reproductive age, still desiring fertility. Adnexectomy should only be considered beyond the reproductive age and really only in cases with extreme pathology on the adnexa.
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.
- Balci O, Icen MS, Mahmoud AS, Capar M, Colakoglu MC (2010) Management and outcomes of adnexal torsion: a 5-year experience. Arch Gynecol Obstet 284(3):643–646. doi:10.1007/s00404-010-1702-z PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pansky M, Abargil A, Dreazen E, Golan A, Bukovsky I, Herman A (2000) Conservative management of adnexal torsion in premenarchal girls. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 7(1):121–124PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pena JE, Ufberg D, Cooney N, Denis AL (2000) Usefulness of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of ovarian torsion. Fertil Steril 73(5):1047–1050PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Erdemoglu M, Kuyumcuoglu U, Guzel AI (2011) Clinical experience of adnexal torsion: evaluation of 143 cases. J Exp Ther Oncol 9(3):171–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zweizig S, Perron J, Grubb D, Mishell DR Jr (1993) Conservative management of adnexal torsion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168(6 Pt 1):1791–1795PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGovern PG, Noah R, Koenigsberg R, Little AB (1999) Adnexal torsion and pulmonary embolism: case report and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv 54(9):601–608PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oelsner G, Cohen SB, Soriano D, Admon D, Mashiach S, Carp H (2003) Minimal surgery for the twisted ischaemic adnexa can preserve ovarian function. Hum Reprod 18(12):2599–2602PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fleischer AC, Brader KR (2001) Sonographic depiction of ovarian vascularity and flow: current improvements and future applications. J Ultrasound Med 20(3):241–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schollmeyer T, Soyinka AS, Mabrouk M, Jonat W, Mettler L, Meinhold-Heerlein I (2008) Chronic isolated torsion of the left fallopian tube: a diagnostic dilemma. Arch Gynecol Obstet 277(1):87–90. doi:10.1007/s00404-007-0411-8 PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Breech LL, Hillard PJ (2005) Adnexal torsion in pediatric and adolescent girls. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 17(5):483–489. doi:00001703-200510000-00008 PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bider D, Mashiach S, Dulitzky M, Kokia E, Lipitz S, Ben-Rafael Z (1991) Clinical, surgical and pathologic findings of adnexal torsion in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Surg Gynecol Obstet 173(5):363–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosado WM Jr, Trambert MA, Gosink BB, Pretorius DH (1992) Adnexal torsion: diagnosis by using Doppler sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 159(6):1251–1253PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stock RJ (1987) Clinicopathologic changes resulting from adnexal torsion. J Reprod Med 32(3):201–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nichols DH, Julian PJ (1985) Torsion of the adnexa. Clin Obstet Gynecol 28(2):375–380PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Argenta PA, Yeagley TJ, Ott G, Sondheimer SJ (2000) Torsion of the uterine adnexa. Pathologic correlations and current management trends. J Reprod Med 45(10):831–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kurzbart E, Mares AJ, Cohen Z, Mordehai J, Finaly R (1994) Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube in premenarcheal girls. J Pediatr Surg 29(10):1384–1385PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wong SW, Suen SH, Lao T, Chung KH (2010) Isolated fallopian tube torsion: a series of six cases. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 89(10):1354–1356. doi:10.3109/00016349.2010.503870 PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oelsner G, Bider D, Goldenberg M, Admon D, Mashiach S (1993) Long-term follow-up of the twisted ischemic adnexa managed by detorsion. Fertil Steril 60(6):976–979PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Way S (1946) Ovarian cystectomy of twisted cysts. Lancet 2(6411):47PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mage G, Canis M, Manhes H, Pouly JL, Bruhat MA (1989) Laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion. A review of 35 cases. J Reprod Med 34(8):520–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Koo YJ, Lee JE, Lim KT, Shim JU, Mok JE, Kim TJ (2011) A 10-year experience of laparoscopic surgery for adnexal masses during pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 113(1):36–39PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar