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Table 1 Characterization of 98 patients with uterine perforation and without uterine perforation in Chinese women of IUD insertion

From: Clinical characteristic and intraoperative findings of uterine perforation patients in using of intrauterine devices (IUDs)

Characteristic Uterine perforation (n = 29) Non-uterine perforation (n = 69)
Age (years)
 Median (range) 35 (22–60) 38 (20–71)
Symptoms
 Asymptomatic 10 (34.5) 32 (46.4)
 Pain (pelvic and/or abdominal) 10 (34.5) 15 (21.7)
 Menstrual disorders 3 (10.3) 12 (17.4)
 Unintended pregnancy 5 (17.2) 4 (5.8)
 Missing strings 4 (13.8) 4 (5.8)
 Vaginal bleeding 0 (0) 3 (4.3)
History of previously pregnancy outcome
 Cesarean section 7 (24.1) 27 (39.1)
 Vaginal birth 22 (75.9) 42 (60.9)
Diagnosis of IUD migration
 B-scan ultrasonography (B-scan) only 13 (44.8) 52 (75.4)
 X-radiation (X-rays) only 3 (10.3) 1 (1.4)
 B-scan + X-rays 6 (20.7)* 3 (4.3)
 Others 7 (24.1) 13 (18.8)
IUD insertion after last delivery (months)
 Median (range) 16 (3–60) 24 (3–120)
 ≤ 6 15 (51.7)* 17 (24.6)
 > 6 to ≤ 12 4 (13.8) 15 (21.7)
 ≥ 12 8 (27.6) 20 (29.0)
 Not postpartum 2 (6.9) 17 (24.6)
Time from insertion to diagnosis (months)
 Median (range) 114 (1–408) 93 (1–480)
 ≤ 12 8 (27.6) 13 (18.8)
 > 12 to ≤ 60 6 (20.7) 27 (39.1)
 > 60 to ≤ 120 6 (20.6) 15 (21.7)
 ≥ 120 9 (31.0) 14 (20.3)
Institution for operation of IUD inserting
 Rural hospital or lower level 26 (89.7)* 48 (69.6)
 Urban hospital 3 (10.3) 21 (30.4)
Type of IUD
 T-shaped copper, made in China 10 (34.5) 20 (29.0)
 V-shaped copper, made in China 13 (44.8) 31 (44.9)
 O-shaped, made in China 4 (13.8) 10 (14.5)
 GyneFix, made in Belgium 1 (3.4) 3 (4.3)
 Others 1 (3.4) 5 (7.2)
  1. Non-uterine perforation was subjected to IUD malposition without uterine perforation. The data are presented as n (%) unless stated otherwise
  2. *p < 0.05, analyzed by Fisher’s exact test